Saturday, November 30, 2013

SPAIN: Ancient History - When the Greeks went to Spain!

Following the perpetual journey of the Greeks around the world, we arrive in Spain, the country of the Pobladores Griekos and the Basque.

   Spain has always been a favorite destination for Greeks since ancient years already...

   First of all Hercules had campaigned there, as evidenced by the lighthouse in current Coruna, named "Pyrinaiki", which was attributed to the peninsula by him in honor of his wife "Pyrine" (Core) and thousands of other cities founded by him .

  The son of Hercules was also called "Iberian" and was considered as the founder of Iberia!
   Characteristic of the presence of this great hero in this region is the name of today's Canal of Gibraltar , which used to bear the name "Pillars of Hercules"!
   Several years later came the turn originally of Dionysos to visit those places and then Ulysses, who according to legend founded the city of Iberia to the position of the current Lisbon!
   It is said that Dionysus renamed the Hesperia (old name of Spain) in Spain, in honor of Pan, who had accompanied him in his campaign (Is-Panias: To Panias)!
«Πᾶνα κατέλιπεν ἐπιμελητὴν τῶν τόπων, ὃς τὴν χώραν ἀπ´ αὐτοῦ Πανίαν μετωνόμασεν· ἣν οἱ μεταγενέστεροι παραγώγως Σπανίαν προσηγόρευσαν, καθὼς ἱστορεῖ Σωσθένης ἐν ιγʹ Ἰβηρικῶν» Πλούταρχος (Περί Ίσιδος και Οσίριδος). (Plutarch, "About Isis and Osiris") anc. Greek.
   Strabo in the books of B, C, D, E 'Geographic states, inter alia, that many Homeric heroes passed through those places (Aeneas, Menelaus, etc.).
   He also records the existence of the Lousitan (ancient province of the Iberian peninsula) who had chosen to follow the lifestyle of the Spartans. Ate frugally, organized equestrian, gymnastics and hoplite races and practiced martial arts in general.
   So, as we can see, the Greeks added another station in their colonies around the Mediterranean, which is evident from the plurality of Greek cities along the whole of Iberia!
-Emporion, Ampuries: The most important Greek colony. The Greeks, Phocaeans specifically, taught the locals to cultivate with love olives and vines. It was named so because trade flourished there (Emporio: in Greek- trade,commerce)
  Where the Greeks went, they gave generously and diligently culture and organized commercial stations, since they had intensely developed commercial acumen. Emporio introduced the planning of Greek cities and the first coins were minted in the region.
-Gallipoli (Barcelona), Zakatha (Sagundo, founded by Zakynthians), Accra White (Alicante), Tartisso (Spaniards claim to be the oldest city in Europe), Rodi (Rosas), Cartagena (Cartagena), Abdera (in memory of Abdera, friend of Hercules), Pini, Keresos, CFP, Imeroskopeion sagebrush, Mainaki (Malaca), Evysos (Ibiza), and many others.
   Of course the above cities abound Greek element through numerous Greek buildings, the theaters, temples, statues (Statue of Asklepios 2m height.!), Holidays, etc.
   A paramount example is the famous bull fights of Spain, which exist until today and which have their roots in the Minoan bull-leaping, in which the athlete was performing jumps over the bull.
  There have been several depictions and in Crete (paintings, statuettes, seals) but also in other parts of Greece (Pylos, Tiryns) and in Asia Minor (Smyrna-also Greek colony).
   From these came the Spanish bullfighting. Of course, in today's Spain, the sport is barbaric, because in Greece they never killed the bull, which was a sacred animal.
Let us now look at a few things about both, the literal Hellenized populations of Spain, the Pompladores Gkriekos (Greek inhabitants of the Elitsa,Gr: "Ελίκη"=propellar) and the Basques, which are located in the western Pyrenees mountains (<Pyrena, companion of Hercules-also Greek colony).

   The pobladores Griegos, remembering their Greek origin, celebrated every year the Greek Week which includes the typical life of an ancient Greek city (Rhapsodies, theater, dance, flares, soldiers parades, amphorae, ancient coins, gems, tunics, leggings...) and the speach "Homeric". Alongside, they honor with religious depictions the Assumption on every August 15.
   Regarding the Basques, there are various theories about their origin (Libya, Phoenicians, Iberians, etc.). Seems more convincing if we think that besides their Greek mentality and culture, themselves Basques declare Greeks!
   They are particularly known for their hospitality, pride, patriotism and military skills.
Strabo mentions (C 155): «Οι παλαιοί πολεμιστές ζούσαν κατά Σπαρτιατικό τρόπο και φορούσαν περικνημίδες. Οι Δρυΐδες προέβλεπαν τα μελλούμενα από σφάγια των θυσιών, αφού εξέταζαν τα σπλάχνα τους (…) Ιδρύθηκαν πόλεις που έχουν ονόματα, όπως Έλληνες, Αμφίλοχοι, διότι ο Αμφίλοχος πέθανε εδὠ. Προσφέρουν κατά τρόπον ελληνικό (…) Είναι το έθνος των Ουασκόνων».
  "The veterans lived in Spartan way and wore leggings. The Druids predicted things to come from carcasses of sacrificial, since they examined the their bowels (...) Founded cities that have names like Greek, Amfilohiko, because Amphilochos died here. They offer as the Greeks (...) its the nation of Ouaskon."

  The Basques grow, as classical Greeks, with care grapes and olives and retain excessive love for Greece. Who forgets the proposal Basque MEP made for the Greek to be the official language of Europe, which of course was voted down even by Greek "Europeanists"'.
   Bilbao houses the Greek Royal Academy.

   And since we talked about language, let's look at a few examples of Spanish words that have Greek roots:
Aire< αήρ
Tala< τάλας (φτωχός)
Henada< χελιδών (Δωρική Διάλεκτος, κατά την οποία το λ τρέπεται σε ν)
Tronu< θρόνος
Herria< χώρα
estadio> στάδιον
mozo(υπηρέτης)>μόθων(γιος δούλου)
Ana< Άν(ν)α (προσφώνημα Ελλήνων για τον Δία που προέρχεται από το επίρρημα άνω)
   But even the interjection of Spanish "Ole" comes from the Greek phrase lament "O demons Ole"!
   There are also plenty of Spanish philhellenes : Juan Valera (important poet and novelist, gave the first modern Greek poems in Spanish). Antonio Rubio Luke (philologist, enethrmos philellene gave Greek texts in Spanish literature). Bergknes de las Casas (Catalan Hellenist, he believed that the Catalan cultural identity should be connected with the Greek culture) Federico Krutwig Sagredo ( Basque Hellenist , considered the mother of all Greek language ) Pedro Olalla ( Hellenist of our days considers Hellenism hope of the future).

   Significant Greeks loved by Spaniards were: Domenikos Theotokopoulos ( El Greco ) and the scholar Dimitris Doukas who was invited to teach humanist letters in early Renaissance Ispania.Simera predicated large number of organizations and institutions aforyn Hellenism Spain. A typical example is the «Iberia Graeca», officially started its operation in 2010 by the Ministry of Culture of Spain and the Government of Catalunya to classify and most comprehensive study of the huge volume Greek archaeological finds ever discovered in the city Emporion.In Spain there is another memorable station of the Greeks who certifies the unrelenting journey not only in the Mediterranean region but throughout the kosmos. Of cource, Greece still keeps closed the door to those Greeks who could offer a lot to our country and Hellenism in general, something that already do...
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